Who needs guidelines for culturally sensitive tourism?

Text: Monika Lüthje

In our previous blog post Kjell Olsen and Outi Kugapi discussed about guidelines and roadmaps for culturally sensitive tourism. They pointed out that local entrepreneurs are not waiting or hoping for new guidelines to run their tourism businesses in a culturally sensitive way. This approach is understandable: being part of the local context, these entrepreneurs know how to take the local cultures into account in a respectful manner in their products and services. They know, for example, how the local people use the nature and can plan their nature-based tourism activities without disturbing other activities, be it berry picking, hunting, reindeer herding, or anything else.

Instead of creating new guidelines, our project team dived into the sea of existing guidelines in the Arctic.

Map of existing tourism guidelines in the Arctic. Click the image to visit the Prezi-presentation of the guidelines – created by Suvi Autio.

We created a Map of Guidelines which shows how many organisations and local communities have been previously creating different kinds of guidelines for tourism. Why is that? For whom they are? If the locals do not seem to need these kinds of instructions and recommendations, an obvious answer is that the guidelines are for non-locals.

First, different kinds of seasonal tourism actors need guidance in order to be able to navigate in the local cultures in a respectful manner. In our baseline research in winter/spring 2019 – one year before the outbreak of COVID-19 – we found out that a growing number of outsiders had entered the tourism scene in the Arctic: foreign tourism companies were operating in the area and even local companies had to employ non-local guides and other non-local staff because there was not enough local work force. We also learned that many times these outsiders were the ones causing problems because they did not know about the local cultures – and maybe even did not care to learn. It is quite probable that once the pandemic is over and the number of guests will increase, the situation will be somewhat the same. Hence, guidelines can play an important role as they teach the newcomers what kind of tourism the local people want to have in their home areas and what kind of behavior is considered appropriate and inappropriate, and in that way diminish disturbance of the local cultures.

How to help visitors to make responsible choices? Photo credit: Emily Höckert

Second, tourists form another important group of outsiders who need guidance in how to behave in a respectful manner in tourism destinations. Based on our baseline research, their behavior can disturb and irritate local people in many ways and many times, probably, because of lack of knowledge and recognition of local cultures. Guidelines are an excellent way to communicate local wishes to the respectful, open minded visitors.

In our Map of Guidelines most guidelines are promoting sustainable, ethical or responsible tourism, not specifically culturally sensitive tourism as the term cultural sensitivity is quite new in tourism development. Many of the guidelines include, however, guidelines for cultural sensitivity. As the terms sustainable, ethical, responsible and culturally sensitive are quite abstract, the guidelines show what the abstract terms mean in practice. We hope that our Map of Guidelines can help different actors to navigate among different kinds of existing guidelines, which can offer inspiration for anyone working with tourism, including local companies.

You can read and learn more about the topic from ARCTISEN’s free online course.

Photo credit: Taina Vuolteenaho, Näkkälä Adventures

On Tourism Guidelines and Roadmaps in the Arctic

Text: Kjell O. Olsen & Outi Kugapi

During the past year, different kinds of guidelines have been created to enhance sustainable and responsible tourism in the Arctic. ARCTISEN project has tracked down the existing guidelines, and gathered them to this map, designed by Suvi Autio.

Map of existing tourism guidelines in the Arctic. Click the image to visit the Prezi-presentation of the guidelines – created by Suvi Autio.

One of the originally planned activities in ARCTISEN project was co-create specific guidelines for culturally sensitive tourism. Common guidelines created by tourism start-ups, SMEs and other project participants were hoped to raise awareness and respect towards cultural diversity in the Arctic tourism context among tourism actors. During the preparatory phase of the ARCTISEN project, guidelines were seen as a tool that could improve business environments for the start-ups and SMEs and enhance mutual understanding and cooperation between them and larger companies in the project area.

Nevertheless, when the ARCTISEN team started to conduct interviews among different kinds of tourism actors in the Arctic in 2019, the initial plan of guidelines needed to be revisited. (You can read more about the base-line reports here.) For instance, the interviews in Finland and Norway indicated that tourism companies were either not aware of existing guidelines, or did not see them highly relevant to their individual businesses. In Sweden, the companies rather emphasized the need for dialog, communication and public leadership, instead of guidelines. Also in Greenland, few of the small companies seemed to be eager to promote the idea of making new guidelines for cultural awareness.

Interesting differences

The interviews revealed interesting differences in people’s opinions toward guidelines. First of all, there is a difference between places with relatively many and those with relatively few tourists. When tourism is moderate, and entrepreneurs themselves are part of a local community, tourism actors appear to know how to handle cultural sensitivity. There seems to be no need for somebody to tell them how to act. Therefore, they are reluctant to develop guidelines for the sector. In contrast, in tourist hubs the idea of guidelines is more frequently discussed. Guidelines could make it easier to operate, in particular for those who are not part of Indigenous or local communities – such as national tourist companies.

Secondly, institutions and DMOs are more eager to propose guidelines based on the prospect of a growth in tourism. For them it seems to be a principle of being prepared for what potentially might come, while entrepreneurs themselves seems to have a shorter horizon on this issue. Finally, in Finland and Norway we found that the younger generations seem to be more positive towards guidelines then the older generation.

What does this tell us?

First of all, that the majority of companies interviewed in the Arctisen project are firmly embedded in their local communities, and therefore get their ‘guidelines’ for cultural sensitivity through their everyday interaction with local community. This kind of base of the local companies probably can make overarching guidelines to become a nuisance as the general guidelines never will fit with the more fine-grained moral knowledge of the local entrepreneurs themselves. This is not to say that local knowledge always will guarantee that tourism not will cause conflicts and will be conducted in a way that local communities find proper. Rather, it is to say that a local foundation for tourism companies makes them a part of the ongoing life in local communities, with its own conflicts but also with local traditions for solving them.

Last, but not least, our experience serves as a good example about the need to revisit and modify project plans along the way.

Paths to culturally sensitive tourism business

Based on the discoveries throughout the project lifetime and the difficulty of creating common guidelines, we decided to create a roadmap “Paths to culturally sensitive tourism business” which shows how tourism can be done in culturally sensitive way. Due to pandemic, the guidelines have been created based on the videos made for our online course and also based on the national reports produced during the project.

To see texts better, please click the picture and use zoom tool. The picture is also printable.

Roadmap illustaration: Emmanuel Tauch, Outi Kugapi, Monika Lüthje and Elisa Hartikainen

REINVENTING STORIES IN ARCTIC TOURISM DESTINATIONS: Cultural sensitivity in times of the pandemic

By Elsbeth Bembom & Randy Bruin

As explored in the previous blog post on Arctic tourism and the Covid-19 pandemic, tourism entrepreneurs and local DMOs have had to rethink their products and marketing strategies to adapt to a growing staycation market as a consequence of the pandemic. This blog post zooms in on issues of cultural sensitivity in this context of tourism during the pandemic. What stories about local culture and everyday life are told to the domestic visitors and how are local communities coping with this different form of tourism development?

During the summer of 2020, Greenland and the Nordic Arctic regions of Norway, Sweden and Finland saw an unprecedented growth of domestic tourists, as traveling internationally was hindered by global travel restrictions. This blog post looks at the implications of the pandemic on culturally sensitive tourism development in the Arctic. We specifically look at the dissemination of local and Indigenous culture to domestic tourists and the general consequences for local communities of the recent drastic changes in tourism. To explore these topics, we listen to the experiences of local tourism experts and entrepreneurs in Greenland, Norway, Sweden and Finland to learn about cultural sensitivity during a pandemic in the Arctic.

Panorama view from Skulsfjord, Kvaløya, Troms og Finnmark, Northern Norway – Photo by M. Blom

Telling other stories?

Whereas the main narrative in tourism marketing targeted at international tourists often revolves around stories that represent the Arctic as an ‘untouched wilderness’, the interviewed experts at local DMOs agreed that a different message was needed for the domestic market. Among international tourists, there is a growing interest in learning about local Arctic ways of living, but many of the domestic tourists want to experience ‘difference’ as well. As Jesper Schrøder, destination manager at Arctic Circle Business, explains: “It’s hard to sell Greenland to Greenlanders, because we sell who we are, and Greenlanders are already that”.

As a consequence, Anette Grønkjær Lings, chairman of Visit Greenland, noted that the staycation market in Greenland demonstrated no interest in stories related to local culture or history, as “digging much more into that […] would be very artificial”. For instance, stories about the national dress or myths around the northern lights became irrelevant. Instead, emphasizing local trademarks, such as national parks, ice caps, fjords and UNESCO sites, became one of the main stories which tourism entrepreneurs and DMOs used to communicate with the domestic market.

“It’s hard to sell Greenland to Greenlanders, because we sell who we are, and Greenlanders are already that” – Jesper Schrøder

Encountering new visitor dynamics

The stories told to domestic tourists were in some way also more detailed. According to Hilde Bjørkli, head of competence and development at Northern Norway Tourist Board, Norwegian tourists “don’t need this kind of surface stories. They need more, more deeper stories”, as they already know Norway. Despite this promising observation, the local experts were less positive when discussing the opportunities for Sámi tourism within the Scandinavian staycation market. Many believed it to be “awkward” or “odd” to visit a Sámi family as a fellow Norwegian, Swede or Finn.

Yet, interviewed Sámi entrepreneurs from Northern Norway told us different stories about their encounter with domestic guests. One of them described that she found it easier to connect with the Norwegian visitors, as they were able to make a deeper connection based on all the stories they had in common as fellow-Norwegians. As the owner elaborates, “they know lots of things about Sámi culture, they have read about it. So, in one way we can tell them the true story”. Another Sámi tourism entrepreneur pointed to how new, domestic audiences challenge usual stories of nature relations: “Norwegian people do not like me saying that we have another way to relate to nature. Because […] they have an identity that they are the outdoor [enthusiasts]”. These examples indicate that new host-guest encounters foster new conversations – not only about national and cultural identities, but also of how hosts and guests engage with and represent their relations with nature in different ways depending on the audience.

Gamme in Skardalen, Kåfjord, Troms og Finnmark, Northern Norway – Photo by R. Bruin

In Greenland, culture is usually not offered as a tourism experience in the same explicit way as in the Nordics as indicated in the above. Yet, other culturally sensitive issues arose when Greenlandic domestic tourists wished to experience a tour with a Greenlandic, rather than a foreign guide. As Salik Hard, senior project manager at Sermersooq Business, explains: “For local habitants, we don’t want to be guided by a foreigner that has been in our culture a few weeks”. As also previously uncovered in an ARCTISEN report, the tourism industry in Greenland depends on foreign workforce, often from Denmark. This issue became even more controversial as a result of the staycation trend and tour operators who were able to offer Greenlandic guides gained a major advantage.

When looking at the staycation boom through the lens of cultural sensitivity, a positive outcome is that it became clear that local stories are best shared by locals. At the same time, the demand for local representation touches upon a complex postcolonial history between Greenland and Denmark as well as upon general challenges of attracting domestic workers in labour-intensive seasonal industries such as tourism.

The pandemic as driver of change

The renewed focus on the staycation market has meant that local communities have become even more important. Despite the increasing flows of domestic tourists, businesses in and outside the tourism sector have still suffered. In other words, tourism development is not detached but highly connected to all layers in society, which became clear in our conversations with tourism actors in Finland, Greenland, northern Norway, and Sweden. Even though many differences exist between and within the countries, this is one thing that we can state for most Arctic tourism destinations. As argued by several tourism entrepreneurs, “the tourist industry is an important business. And if we leave, there will be a missing link in the society”. Salik Hard stressed that “the accommodation facilities, restaurants, the tour operators, stakeholders, cultural institutions, (..), are very dependent on the tourism. Absolutely”.

“The tourist industry is an important business. And if we leave, there will be a missing link in the society” – Arctic tourism entrepreneur

Prior to Covid-19, the tourism businesses contributed to local communities in terms of income generation, but also collaborations between businesses within similar and among different sectors. Among most Sámi entrepreneurs in northern Norway, thinking about the society and future generations is part of the business culture according to Solveig Ballo, CEO, and Antje Schlecht, project manager at the Sapmi Business Garden. Both emphasized that economic diversification, or the “several legs to stand on”, is a “society strength” that “actually saved the businesses” from bankruptcy.

In general, tourism entrepreneurs explained their attempt to through their business “show the people that they have to stop and breathe. We have to stop and think.” And how they “hope guests can connect themselves to nature, and (..) will find peace and rest a bit when they are at the camp”. These aims are reflected on their own way of living, as Jesper Schrøder argued: “tourist entrepreneurs are able to have a [satisfying] way of life (..), [by] being out in nature(..)”.

Recent developments have raised fears among tourism actors. Kristian Sievers, project manager at the Regional Council of Lapland, northern Finland, shared that businesses not directly related to the tourism industry are still very connected to tourism companies and when the latter run out of income, the companies providing services for the tourist industry will soon follow. A loss of local participation in his view will also entail the loss of contemporary cultural representation in Arctic tourism experiences. For the nearby future, a northern Norwegian entrepreneur foresaw that many businesses will be bankrupt, take on new jobs, and might not return to the tourism industry.

What will this entail for cultural sensitivity?

(Stay tuned for the article that will look more into tourism dynamics in times of the pandemic in both Greenland and northern Norway!)

Moving on

Our interviews show that despite the crisis situation, domestic tourism has provided an opportunity for tourism entrepreneurs to rethink and reinvent their stories. Also, domestic tourists have had a positive experience (re)discovering and learning about their own country in new ways. These tourism encounters offered new kinds of interactions and in some ways, a deeper connection was made. However, covid-19 hit the Arctic tourism industry hard, which led to bankruptcies, loss of jobs, and the closing of restaurants, shops and other facilities in and outside the tourism sector.

While the situation looks difficult for many communities that depend on international tourism, the staycation growth created an opportunity (although forced) to rethink the stories of the destination and of its cultures.



How has Covid19 affected Arctic tourism and what challenges, trends and innovations are on the rise among local tourism entrepreneurs? During the last few weeks, Elsbeth Bembom from ARCTISEN has been talking to tourism experts from Greenland, Norway, Sweden and Finland to explore Arctic’s current tourism landscape. Corona-proof, behind her desk.


While the concept of staycation in recent years has often been associated with strategies to reduce negative environmental impacts and flight shame, 2020 was the year where staycation became the new normal for tourists all around the world. While countries turned orange and red on the world map and lockdowns were enforced to stop the spread of the coronavirus, several positive stories also appeared in the news in the summer of 2020. Many destinations in Europe welcomed a record-high number of visitors, for instance in Denmark, where tourists could take the ferry for free to support island tourism. Despite some of these successful staycation hotspots, the overall industry is suffering, with UNWTO predicting a global drop of 70% in international arrivals in 2020.

But what has happened to tourism in the Arctic regions? Did the staycation trend boom in the North as well? As a destination, the Arctic is a highly diverse area with different cultures, tourism developments and products and, as a consequence, Covid-19 responses. It came therefore as no surprise that we heard many different and even contrasting stories from destination managers at local DMOs. As became clear from all the interviews with these tourism experts, some tourism businesses flourished this summer and welcomed more guests than ever before, while others were forced to shut down their business. So, what Arctic experiences attracted the exploded home market in 2020 and which did not cater for domestic staycation guests? Let’s explore the Arctic tourism landscape in times of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Reindeer sleigh ride in Levi

A staycation boom

After the many cancellations in March, some destinations received a record high number of domestic tourists due to the global travel restrictions. While domestic tourism is not a new phenomenon to the Arctic regions, the staycation trend has not been observed before to this extent. As Salik Hard, senior project manager at Semersooq Business Council, stated: “I think it’s this summer, we actually had more guests than we had normally, because we did a lot of things on the staycation activities”. What most of the popular destinations had in common this summer, was their rural and remote character. As the chairman of a local tourist organization in Northern Sweden explained, the mountain areas received many guests since “we feel it is safe to go to the mountains” to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

From a DMO perspective, several national and regional campaigns have been developed to attract domestic tourists and to support local tourism entrepreneurs, such as the Greenlandic Nunarput Nuan campaign, which aims to encourage people in Greenland to discover their own country. Similarly, the Destinasjon Sápmi campaign tries to inform Norwegians of the hidden Sámi gems in the North. These campaigns are specifically focused on domestic tourists, as, for instance, the websites are only available in local languages.

Basic or high-end experiences on the rise?

Companies that failed to benefit from the staycation boom included mostly expensive offerings that were mainly targeted at foreign tourists. For instance, many tour operators who organize activities such as zodiac tours, husky or reindeer visits and snowmobile safaris experienced a difficult summer. Kristian Sievers from the Regional council of Lapland believes that this development is caused because “the Finns come for the sort of more self catering holidays”, where they bring their own skies and bikes and prepare their own meals. To adapt to this Finnish market, Kristian observed that companies lowered their prizes. Similarly, in Jokkmokk, Northern Sweden, a great deal of the high-standard restaurants went bankrupt and in Greenland, Salik Hard saw extravagant glamping sites and big hotels struggling to run their businesses.

Quite remarkably, in Norway and to a lesser extent also Sweden, these exact luxurious accommodations and services were in explosive demand among domestic tourists. This resulted in dining at high-end restaurants to become the biggest trend among Norwegian visitors to Northern Norway over the summer. As Hilde Bjørkli, head of competence and development at the Northern Norway Tourism Board, described: “The [tour] boats were not used that much, but the kitchen was used a lot. And so, [the entrepreneurs] realize that Norwegians have to be treated in a different way.” While the Norwegian tour sector was at risk, some managed to save the season by offering food services instead. Similarly, some Sámi tourism businesses adapted their products to attract domestic tourists by, for instance, upgrading their accommodation to glamping lavvu’s, which is a traditional Sámi tent, and improving their food services with an outdoor BBQ and wine menus.

Cross-country skiing in Levi

Away from the popular destinations

Yet, many Indigenous tourism entrepreneurs in the Scandinavian Arctic suffered over the summer as they often host international guests arriving from cruise ships or boat tours. Correspondingly, tourism businesses in remote regions in Greenland, like Tasiilaq, which rely on cruise guests, have been dramatically hit, impacting the entire local community. However, some entrepreneurs were successful to invert this catastrophic situation by moving their tours to the tourism hotspot in Nuuk. According to Salik Hard, those who quickly managed to increase their capacity were able to profit from the Greenlandic staycation boom. As an example, the owner of a cruise company in Nuuk increased its capacity by offering short boat trips out of Nuuk to domestic tourists. Similar to Tasiilaq, local communities in Sisimiut also noticed the severe consequences of the absent cruise ships. As a response, tour operators took the opportunity to rethink their products, services and stories. Jesper Schrøder, destination manager at Arctic Circle Business, spoke with many tourism entrepreneurs in Sisimiut, who used the slow season to renovate cabins for longer stays and to come up with new ideas on how to use their sledge dogs in the summer season.

What’s next?

All developments considered, Arctic tourism in times of Covid-19 consists of a highly fragmented landscape where some services and destinations peaked through the sky, while in the valleys, some businesses found it hard to adapt. Despite some destinations experiencing growth, the level of tourism in the summer of 2020 has been much lower than previous years. Many local tourism entrepreneurs have been forced to downsize their business or fire employees to keep their head above water. Thankfully, some entrepreneurs have found strategies and innovations to transform their products, within just one season, to a whole new market. Since we are still in the middle of the crisis, the development sketched out in this blog triggers many new questions. Which innovations are there to stay when international visitors can be welcomed again? Can the experience with domestic markets offer clues towards the future development for a more sustainable Arctic tourism, as more people might increasingly consider a staycation? And, very relevant to ARCTISEN, what are the consequences of more domestic guests for the development of culturally sensitive tourism? Stay tuned for a new blog on domestic tourism and cultural sensitivity!


After learning from and traveling together with tourism entrepreneurs and organizations across the Arctic, there was the big task ahead of the ARCTISEN-team to analyse and explore the massive amount of valuable data. Now, during this unusual winter of 2020, we are happy to announce that the launch of the free online course is almost here! Starting today, we invite you to join the teaser of the online course on ARCTISEN’s Facebook and Instagram pages. Are you ready?

The aim of the social media campaign is to inform tourism entrepreneurs, organizations, students and our followers about the upcoming course and to share some of the practical learnings for developing culturally sensitive tourism yourself! What is cultural sensitivity exactly, how do you work with it, and how does it benefit your culture and your business? We will give the answers! The full online course is free and will be released early next year. With our social media campaign, we hope to inspire and motivate you to participate in the online course and to improve your skills to work in your local cultural and business environment.

However, to capture all the rich and context-specific insights from the online course in a short teaser was easier said than done! Sometimes it can be a bit overwhelming to work with all the data the team has gathered over several years in different countries. That is exactly why we wanted to go back to the core: What are the main learnings that are worth sharing? To find this out, we needed to adopt a bird’s-eye view, which was perfectly suitable for us as interns, since we are quite new to the team. The outcome? The “golden three”-rule: Present the three main takeaways per theme in a short and visual way, so our followers get curious to learn more in the online course!


Best wishes,

Emmanuel and Elsbeth


Emmanuel and Elsbeth are interns at ARCTISEN who have joined their forces! Emmanuel is from Germany and he is studying the master’s program Arctic Art and Design at the University of Lapland. He is a great contribution to the team, as he helps with creating catchy visuals for the online course. Elsbeth is from the Netherlands and is a master student of the Tourism program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. She helps with finalizing the online course and tries to raise awareness for it on Arctisen’s social media channels.

Authenticity as a compromise: why labels can be very important

Text and photos: Cecilia de Bernardi


Since I started my work with Sámi tourism, initially I focused on analysing language, marketing, and specifically how culture is portrayed in pictures. The reason why I started with this is that marketing communication is an important aspect of the process of attracting tourists to a certain place. A website, a brochure or a picture on Instagram can affect the tourists’ expectations of a destination they want to visit.

If the tourists are presented with an exotic and historical version of Sámi culture(s), this is what they will most likely expect when they arrive at the destination. This can make it hard for Sámi tourism entrepreneurs to deliver experiences that are based on contemporary Sámi life, while also making sure that the tourists go home satisfied with their trip. This is one side of the coin, other aspects that I learned about while talking to entrepreneurs are the fact that tourists often do not know about the Sámi when they arrive and that they are eager to learn more and are most often respectful. My interviews with the entrepreneurs were the basis for the national baseline report on cultural sensitivity of Sweden for ARCTISEN and for my doctoral dissertation as well.

A view from the Ice Hotel in Jukkasjärvi


Kiruna Church

Another aspect that became apparent during the interviews I conducted, is the different views from the Sámi entrepreneurs on what is regarded as authentic, while it was also clear for them what is not authentic. These findings and my studies of marketing communication are what has driven me to understand authenticity as a compromise. There are different and equally important views on authenticity, while, on the other hand, different views on authenticity have something in common. Due to the fact that there are so many ways in which Sámi culture(s) can be exploited in tourism, in order to protect Sámi culture(s) from unethical use in tourism, labels should be used to promote the aspects of Sámi culture(s) that are shared as well as the differences. An example of a label is the Sápmi Experience in Sweden, which hopefully can be an inspiration for other future labelling schemes. Nowadays with social media and other means of communication, it will be possible to spread information on such a label and gradually educate the tourists on more conscious choices. A label can help to support Sámi tourism enterprises, while also while also protecting the environment. This is another important part of being a Sámi tourism entrepreneur, which is to protect the nature that is so intertwined with culture. A tourism label can also support such efforts and communicate them to the tourists.

Finally, during my research and the interviews, I learned of the importance of Sámi culture(s) for tourism entrepreneurs operating at the local level in northern Sweden, but who are not Sámi. All of the people I interviewed highlighted how important it is for them to not disturb the reindeer, to cooperate with Sámi companies to convey Sámi culture(s) and to make sure that Sámi-related tourism products are in the hands of Sámi entrepreneurs. This is important regarding how a label could help the operations of other companies working closely with Sámi tourism.

In conclusion, a label based on authenticity as a compromise is a way to:

  • Highlight commonalities as well as differences within Sámi culture(s)
  • Protect Sámi culture(s) from unethical use in tourism
  • Potentially protect the surrounding environment
  • Promote education and information to the tourists
  • Support other local companies that cooperate and respect Sámi culture


Cecilia de Bernardi

PhD candidate at the University of Lapland (FI) and Dalarna University (SE). Her doctoral defense will take place on August 28 at the University of Lapland.

Contact details: cdb@du.se

Different Stories: Teaching Sámi Cultures in Tourism

Text and photos: Ella Björn

Why learn about Sámi cultures? Indigenous cultures are critical to our planet’s cultural diversity. Over the years in Finland, tourism entrepreneurs have spread stereotypical and inaccurate information about Sámi cultures. Although exploitation in tourism has decreased in recent times and Sámi people have started their own businesses, the need to teach the correct information about their cultures still exists.

Like other Indigenous cultures, Sámi cultures usually have a holistic worldview in which humans and nature are equal rather than separated. All forms of matter, including animals, are equal actors inhabiting this world. Humanity is not above them.

In her master’s thesis, Ella studied the socio-material practices of teaching Sámi cultures to tourists in Finnish Lapland.

This was a central focus of my master’s thesis; I studied the socio-material practices of teaching Sámi cultures to tourists in Finnish Lapland.

The concept of socio-materiality holds that the social and the material are strongly connected and tightly intertwined. Material elements, such as a table, enable the social activities around them, making the material social as well. The connection between humans and material can also be social in, for example, the making of handicrafts, which can build a relationship between the maker and the product.

Several ways of teaching Sámi cultures appeared in my research, and one was storytelling, a form in which material elements can also play a part. Storytelling is common in Sámi cultures, and stories carry significant meaning. They can help build individual and collective identities, are usually told by elders and are transferred from generation to generation. They highlight different values, worldviews, histories and attitudes, and they can also be funny. Stories also often represent or foretell change.

Stories can be told while making handicrafts, another important aspect of Sámi cultures. A convenient way of teaching and learning about these cultures is attending handicraft workshops and working with materials at the same time, as handicrafts can also carry information. A self-made or purchased handicraft carries a story and leaves tourists with long-lasting memories of Sámi cultures and their overall trip to Finland.

The bracelet I made in Julia Allemann’s Sámi handicraft workshop in Lauri House, Rovaniemi.

Apart from workshops, stories can often be told in nature, perhaps while walking from one place to another. In Sámi cultures, different natural places often have their own stories, and these are rarely written down; rather, they exist in the storyteller’s memory. Tellers learn the story by hearing them, and because they do so in nature, they incorporate their bodies and senses, such as touching, smelling, seeing and hearing. Once again, we see nature and different materials playing a big role in a learning process.

In sum, tourists who want to learn about Sámi cultures should be exposed to their stories, as they can:

  • enhance individual and collective identity,
  • enhance the connection with the nature when told in connection to natural places,
  • enhance the connection with material elements when told at the same time as one works on a handicraft,
  • make the experience memorable and therefore enhance learning, and
  • give voice to different actors.


Master’s thesis, in Finnish, can be found here: ”Kohti posthumanistista ymmärrystä – Saamelaiskulttuurien opettaminen sosiomateriaalisena käytäntönä”.

On responsible tourism marketing in Mid- and Northern Norway


Text: Lena Nøstdahl, Northern Norway Tourist Board


In a market of 1.4 billion international travellers seeking new dream destinations, we need to rethink tourism and make an overall plan for what we want tourism’s contribution to be. The Northern Norway Tourist Board (NNR) has a long-term strategy to help develop a sustainable year-round tourism industry. Our vision is to be a leader in experience-based value creation. Central to the strategy is an innovative segmentation tool based on travel motivation and personal desires instead of place of residence, age, income and so on. This enables us to navigate and make wise strategic decisions on which guests to prioritise so that we both create meaningful customer experiences and contribute actively to building greater local communities.

On the island Lånan, there is a long tradition of gathering eggs and down from the eider duck. From the down, exclusive duvets and pillows are made and sold to the luxury market. Lånan is in the World Heritage area Vegaøyan (the Vega Islands) in Vega municipality, Nordland. Vegaøyan was listed on UNESCO’s list of important world heritage sites in 2004. In the photo, Margit Nilsen Lande is at a stone house where a female bird lies and incubates her eggs. Photo credit: Visit Helgeland.

To be able to achieve this, we need to involve and engage the locals as well as relevant businesses inside and outside traditional tourism. We need to seek close collaboration with destination leaders and communities to create long-term benefits of tourism for both businesses and citizens and to break out of the tourism silo by inviting more people to contribute but also making them more accountable. We believe that responsible tourism will be a key competitive advantage in the near future.

This text offers first an overview of the content and values of the project Responsible Marketing and then examples of the first pilot cases.


Innovation project

The project period of Responsible Marketing is ongoing until 2021 and is funded by the County Council of Nordland and Trøndelag. We are in the early stages of this innovative project; nevertheless, we have gained some new insights that we want to share.

Responsible marketing is in many ways a change from marketing to management in practice. The marketing strategy has its origin in the overall strategy for the entire destination, which is rooted locally. This means working from local wants and needs in such a way that tourism becomes a tool for creating good communities and not a goal in itself.

In this project, we strive to find a working method involving tourism as an industry and marketers with tailor-made measures based on local strategies. We want to test a new approach to building a responsible marketing strategy using the bottom-up principle. Simply put, responsible marketing is all about accountability and taking responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions. Note that doing nothing is also an action.

Our biggest challenge is limiting ourselves since this topic is overreaching in so many ways. Therefore, we have defined a set of principles:

  • Developing a strategy for locating the right guest in the right place at the right time
  • Strategic planning from a holistic perspective and as an integral part of the business plan in the municipality
  • Ensuring that the values created locally are greater than those consumed
  • Close interaction between the local community’s values, wishes and plans and the marketing plans
  • Engaging and involving the local community
  • A system for inputs that respects all inputs and points to actual action
  • A bottom-up process
  • A continuous process rooted locally
  • Being accountable for one’s actions
  • Respecting local choices and values
  • Ensuring that the marketing communication reflects the actual experience



What does responsible marketing mean to us?

Responsible marketing is all about creating a strategy to locate the right guest in the right place at the right time so that the values created locally are greater than those consumed. This requires close interaction between the local community’s values and needs and the action points implemented. Therefore, responsible marketing is about much more than just marketing.

The aim of the project is to develop new working methods and to test how responsible marketing can contribute, as one of several tools, to creating positive local value creation in both tourism and local communities. We want to find new key performance indexes (KPIs) to be able to measure sustainable development and find ways to have ongoing dialogue to make sure that local choices and values are respected and considered.

The coast of Helgeland has more than 12,000 islands. The conditions for kayaking between the islands are excellent. Photo credit: Visit Helgeland.

The Vega Archipelago: A pilot

In 2004, the archipelago’s cultural landscape was inscribed on the UNESCO List of World Natural and Cultural Heritage as a representative of “the way generations of fishermen and farmers have, over the past 1,500 years, maintained a sustainable living in an inhospitable seascape near the Arctic Circle, based on the now unique practice of eiderdown harvesting”. The unique cultural landscape with a tradition of birds was the main reason for the Vega Islands gaining world heritage status in 2004. Vega was also one of the first to be certified in the Sustainable Travel Destinations brand and has already been through recertification. In addition, the municipality of Vega is now working on developing a new generation of tourism life plans. As part of this process, it has involved the locals in Vega in a discussion about what they want tourism to do for Vega and what they want tourism to be like in the future. This has provided a very good knowledge base on how the population wants tourism to contribute to the development of the local community. One of the key aspects of this project is to find out how marketing can help to create the sustainable tourism that the population wants in Vega.


Partnership and twin project

Trøndelag Reiseliv has developed its brand strategy with a model from Northern Norway and shares the vision of experience-based and sustainable tourism development. This provides a good starting point for collaborating. Participating as a pilot is Inderøy. Inderøy is the home of The Golden Road, a tourist route passing through beautiful scenery in the Municipality of Inderøy. Participants along the route offer food, art and cultural experiences, taking both tradition and innovation into consideration. Inderøy is also certified as a Sustainable Travel Destination and has started the process of involving members of the local community by asking them what they want from tourism, what kind of tourism they want for the future and who are the right customers, when and where.

Working with two different pilots is most inspiring. It gives the project different perspectives and a broader experience base. We will be able to conduct tests in different environments, learn from each other and share some of the same tools and resources.

Working group for the project. Photo credit: Lena Nøstdahl/Visit Northern Norway.


National Reports on Cultural Sensitivity


Little more than one year ago, members of our ARCTISEN team were travelling across the Arctic conducting interviews among start-ups, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), local destination management organisations (DMO) and other tourism actors. All together 13 interviews were conducted in Greenland, 23 in Norway, 18 in Sweden and 44 in Finland, while Canada’s research focused on existing guidelines on cultural sensitivity.

The interviews included questions about business environments, product development and needs for capacity building. These discussions formed an important part of the project’s Work Package 1 – ‘Baseline studies on cultural sensitivity’, led by the Arctic University of Norway. Together with desk-studies, the interviews enabled us to form a picture of the visions and needs across the project area and to create the  road-map for future project activities, such as, benchmarking trips, workshops and educational materials.



An overreaching summary of  these studies was published at the end on the year 2019 with title Looking at Arctic tourism through the lens of cultural sensitivity: ARCTISEN – A Transnational Baseline Report. The report offers cross-national com­parisons to understand the multiple ways of drawing on place-based cultural resourc­es in Arctic tourism. It also seeks to answer to the question of ‘What does cultural sensitivity mean?’ or ‘In which ways can Indigenous peoples and other local communi­ties utilize their cultural heritage and contemporary life in creating successful tourism products and services


Today we are happy to launch five, more detailed, national reports on culturally sensitive tourism! All these reports can be found through our website or by following this link.  We believe that the reports can provide new insights, support and inspiration to tourism entrepreneurs, developers, DMO’s, students and researchers working with tourism is the Arctic. These reports will be also used in the forthcoming online course that the project will aim to launch by the end of the year.

The Swedish report highlights the situation for the entrepreneurs operating in tourism, both from a Sámi perspective and from other local and non-local stakeholders. Based on the interviews, there are several issues that have been identified connected to the expansion of tourism. One is sustainability, but also the use of culture in tourism and different structural problems related specifically to tourism entrepreneurship.

The report from Norway approaches community participation in Sámi tourism in Norway and its relationship with cultural sensitivity. It questions, for example, in which ways can Indigenous peoples and other local communities utilize their cultural heritage and contemporary life in creating successful tourism products and services.

The Finnish report (both in Finnish and English) offers an overview of tourism development in Finnish Lapland with a focus on cultural sensitivity and seeks an answer, for example, to this question: How could cultural sensitivity be enhanced, and what kinds of challenges might it present? The report has a special emphasis on the Sámi cultures.

The report from Greenland examines ongoing tourism development  through the lens of cultural sensitivity, offering an overview of the tourism landscape in Greenland, with a particular emphasis on Nuuk  and Sisimiut. The report discusses, for instance, how local communities and businesses can utilise their cultural heritage and contemporary way of life in creating successful tourism products and services.

The report from Canada examines existing guidelines or certificates for culturally sensitive tourism and attempts to assess guideline use by tourism businesses with cultural experience offerings in the Canadian Arctic. Based on a review of formal agreements, guidelines, and business websites, the report found potential opportunities for tourism development within formal agreements with Indigenous nations, and a lack of conclusive evidence for the application of existing guidelines by tourism businesses in the Canadian Arctic, and specifcally within Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.


Many thanks to all of you who participated in the interviews and helped to bring these reports into life! Please feel free to share and distribute them further.

Best wishes,


Arctic Art and Design students’ visit in Hetta

Text: Chau, Emmanuel, Gu, Yiling & Misia
Video and images : Chau-Hsien Kuo

We are a group of Arctic Art and Design students from the University of Lapland in Finland who travelled to Hetta, in north-west Finland, for the annual ice sculpting competition. The peace-themed competition was organized together by Enontekiö municipality, local hotel entrepreneurs and volunteers. The competition started on Thursday morning, the 27th of February, the sculptures having to be completed by noon on Saturday, the 29th of February. The sculptors came from Norway, Ukraine, Germany and Finland, and from various different professional backgrounds, such as industrial design, architecture or stone masonry. There were 14 sculptors in total, who worked in pairs, so that 7 sculptures were entered into the competition.


The village of Hetta is spread over a significant distance along the shore of lake Ounasjärvi, and as the sculptures were sponsored by various local businesses and hotels, they were erected in front of each business or hotel and are thus spread quite far over the entire village. The motifs and techniques used by the artists also were very different. Some sculptures were abstract, with precise, simple, and geometric shapes, whereas others were figurative and had a much more organic style. Others still were a mixture of both, like the one made by two Ukrainian architects, which represented a pair of lovers, rendered in very abstract shapes. The tools and techniques reached from very basic scrapes and knives, to electric saws equipped with blades designed to cut ice. The artists experimented with different techniques to texture the ice and to make it fully translucent, milky white, or covered in thin layers of snow.

The names of the finished artworks were: 1. Northern peace, 2. No worries, 3. Weekend, 4. Balance, 5. Peace spreads in the wings of nature, 6. Peaceful lovers, 7. Peace of mind. We know that the winners were No.7, No.2 and No.3 but having observed the making and final result of each sculpture, we had a difficult time choosing our personal favorites, as the sculptures all were magnificent.

This trip to Hetta was part of a project that promotes the existing cultural program of the Enontekiö municipality (where Hetta is the biggest settlement), and improve online visibility and recognition of these events. The purpose of this specific visit was to observe the ice sculpture competition as a case study, to develop a marketing strategy based on it and other cultural events later in the spring. We are now working on adjusting our plans due to the pandemic situation world is in. The eventual goal of the project is that the strategy we design could then be applied to all the cultural events in Enontekiö, to help valorize the local culture as well as the nature.

With this project, we hope to be able to help the stakeholders (the local actors in tourism, such as hotels and other tourism-related businesses, as well as residents and tourists). We believe that our greatest strengths as a team lie in our multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary background, as we come from China, Germany, Poland, and Taiwan, and have studied different disciplines before beginning our Master’s program at the University of Lapland.

We used our short stay in Hetta to conduct interviews with local actors, artists, and tourists from all over Europe. We received a warm welcome in Hetta and enjoyed walking around the village for two (and a half) days, talking to many friendly faces, and gaining valuable information in the process. We also got to experience the wonderful nature in which Hetta is set and took plenty of pictures and videos, which we can use for the marketing. We even got to see beautiful northern lights!


Greetings from Rovaniemi,

Chau, Emmanuel, Gu, Yiling & Misia